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Wiktionary වෙතින්

This template automatically generates pronunciation for Russian words, relying on Module:ru-pron.

NOTE: This documentation is incomplete. Please contact User:Benwing2 for questions.

Most of the time you can just use the regular spelling of the word, with appropriate accent marks. Use an acute accent for primary stress, and a grave accent for secondary stress.

Term Template call Output
чи́стить (čístitʹ) {{ru-IPA|чи́стить}} IPA(key): [ˈt͡ɕisʲtʲɪtʲ]
де́ться (détʹsja) {{ru-IPA|де́ться}} IPA(key): [ˈdʲet͡sːə]
счастли́вый (sčastlívyj) {{ru-IPA|счастли́вый}} IPA(key): [ɕːɪs⁽ʲ⁾ˈlʲivɨj]
антите́ло (antitélo) {{ru-IPA|а̀нтите́ло}} IPA(key): [ˌanʲtʲɪˈtʲeɫə]

Use a circumflex to indicate "tertiary stress", i.e. an unstressed syllable where the vowel isn't reduced when it normally would be.

Term Template call Output
ха́ос (xáos) {{ru-IPA|ха́о̂с}} IPA(key): [ˈxaos]

Sometimes you will have to respell a word; this especially happens in borrowed words where written е is pronounced as э. In such cases, use phon=, which causes the respelled form to be displayed.

Term Template call Output
ине́ртный (inɛ́rtnyj) {{ru-IPA|phon=инэ́ртный}} IPA(key): [ɪˈnɛrtnɨj] (phonetic respelling: инэ́ртный)
бисексуа́л (bisɛksuál) {{ru-IPA|phon=бисэксуа́л}} IPA(key): [bʲɪsɨksʊˈaɫ] (phonetic respelling: бисэксуа́л)
почу́вствовать (počúvstvovatʹ) {{ru-IPA|phon=почу́ствовать}} IPA(key): [pɐˈt͡ɕustvəvətʲ] (phonetic respelling: почу́ствовать)

Respelling is automatic in genitival -ого and -его, in что and related words, and in the sequences гк and гч. A list of exceptions is maintained where -ого and -его should be pronounced as-is.

Term Template call Output
до́брого пути́ (dóbrovo putí) {{ru-IPA|до́брого пути́}} IPA(key): [ˈdobrəvə pʊˈtʲi] (phonetic respelling: до́брово пути́)
мно́го (mnógo) {{ru-IPA|мно́го}} IPA(key): [ˈmnoɡə]
будь что бу́дет (budʹ što búdet) {{ru-IPA|будь что бу́дет}} IPA(key): [but͡ɕ ʂto ˈbudʲɪt] (phonetic respelling: будь што бу́дет)
мя́гкий (mjáxkij) {{ru-IPA|мя́гкий}} IPA(key): [ˈmʲæxʲkʲɪj] (phonetic respelling: мя́хкий)

Certain short words like не, ни, за, до, по, на, etc. are automatically rendered with reduced vowels and attached to the following word, as indicated by (similarly, certain words like -то are attached to the preceding word). This linking and vowel reduction won't happen if the word has a stress mark. You can force linking/reduction by explicitly joining words with .

Term Template call Output
до свида́ния (do svidánija) {{ru-IPA|до свида́ния}} IPA(key): [də‿svʲɪˈdanʲɪjə]
не зна́ю (ne znáju) {{ru-IPA|не зна́ю}} IPA(key): [nʲɪ‿ˈznajʊ]
то же (to že) {{ru-IPA|то же}} IPA(key): [ˈto‿ʐɨ]
како́й-то (kakój-to) {{ru-IPA|како́й-то}} IPA(key): [kɐˈkoj‿tə]
град идёт (grad idjót) {{ru-IPA|град идёт}} IPA(key): [ɡrat ɪˈdʲɵt]
{{ru-IPA|град‿идёт}} IPA(key): [ɡrəd‿ɨˈdʲɵt]
{{ru-IPA|гра̂д‿идёт}} IPA(key): [ɡrad‿ɨˈdʲɵt]
ни за что́ (ni za štó) {{ru-IPA|ни за что́}} IPA(key): [nʲɪ‿zɐ‿ˈʂto] (phonetic respelling: ни за што́)
не́ за что (né za što) {{ru-IPA|не́‿за‿что}} IPA(key): [ˈnʲe‿zə‿ʂtə] (phonetic respelling: не́зашто)

Commas and dashes are rendered as IPA foot boundaries.

Term Template call Output
то́ же, что (tó že, što) {{ru-IPA|то́ же, что}} IPA(key): [ˈto‿ʐɨ | ʂto] (phonetic respelling: то́ же, што)
век живи́ — век учи́сь (vek živí — vek učísʹ) {{ru-IPA|век живи́ — век учи́сь}} IPA(key): [vʲeɡ ʐɨˈvʲi | vʲek ʊˈt͡ɕisʲ]

Gemination can be controlled explicitly using |gem=y to force gemination, |gem=n to force no gemination, or |gem=opt to force optional gemination. Otherwise, sensible defaults will be used; the exact rules are described below.

Term Template call Output
гру́ппа (grúppa) {{ru-IPA|гру́ппа|gem=opt}} IPA(key): [ˈɡrup(ː)ə]
оргкомите́т (orgkomitét) {{ru-IPA|о̀ргкомите́т|gem=y}} IPA(key): [ˌorkːəmʲɪˈtʲet]
аннота́ция (annotácija) {{ru-IPA|аннота́ция|gem=n}} IPA(key): [ɐnɐˈtat͡sɨjə]
а́ффикс (áffiks) {{ru-IPA|а́ффикс|gem=n}} IPA(key): [ˈafʲɪks]
жи́зненный (žíznennyj) {{ru-IPA|жи́зненный}} IPA(key): [ˈʐɨzʲnʲɪn(ː)ɨj]
заключённый (zaključónnyj) {{ru-IPA|заключённый}} IPA(key): [zəklʲʉˈt͡ɕɵnːɨj]

The sequences зж and жж, except at prefix boundaries, automatically trigger the generation of two pronunciations, the first one with non-palatalized [ʐː] and the second with palatalized [ʑː]. This can be overridden using |zhpal=n to prevent the generation of both variants, or |zhpal=y to force the generation of both variants even at prefix boundaries. Use ӂӂ to indicate only palatalized [ʑː] and сж to indicate only non-palatalized [ʐː]. Examples:

Term Template call Output Notes
брюзжа́ть (brjuzžátʹ) {{ru-IPA|брюзжа́ть}} IPA(key): [brʲʊˈʐːatʲ] ~ [brʲʉˈʑːætʲ] Note the effect of palatalized [ʑː] on adjoining vowels.
съезжа́ем (sʺjezžájem) {{ru-IPA|съезжа́ем}} IPA(key): [sjɪˈʐːa(j)ɪm] ~ [sjɪˈʑːæ(j)ɪm]
дро́жжи (dróžži) {{ru-IPA|дро́жжи}} IPA(key): [ˈdroʐːɨ] ~ [ˈdroʑːɪ] Both variants are generated regardless of stress ...
жжём (žžom) {{ru-IPA|жжём}} IPA(key): [ʐːom] ~ [ʑːɵm] ... and even with жж at the beginning of a word.
разжа́ть (razžátʹ) {{ru-IPA|разжа́ть}} IPA(key): [rɐˈʐːatʲ] But not at a prefix boundary.
разжа́ть (razžátʹ) {{ru-IPA|разжа́ть|zhpal=y}} IPA(key): [rɐˈʐːatʲ] ~ [rɐˈʑːætʲ] Force generation of both variants (incorrect in this case).
жжём (žžom) {{ru-IPA|жжём|zhpal=n}} IPA(key): [ʐːom] Disable generation of both variants, including only the non-palatalized variant.
жжём (žžom) {{ru-IPA|сжём}} IPA(key): [ʐːom] Another way to do the same thing.
жжём (žžom) {{ru-IPA|ӂӂём}} IPA(key): [ʑːɵm] Include only the palatalized variant.
Word or phrase, including accent marks. If omitted, defaults to the page name (only useful when the word is one syllable or includes ё, or when |phon= is used). Can be either in Cyrillic or transliteration.
Phonological respelling of the word or phrase; use in place of |1=. If used, this should be Cyrillic. This is used, for example:
  • When a written е is pronounced э, as in many borrowed words, such as тест (tɛst, test);
  • When a written ч is pronounced ш, e.g. in коне́чно (konéšno, of course);
  • When a written в is omitted, e.g. in здра́вствуйте (zdrástvujte);
  • When other letters are left out, as in casual pronunciations, such as of официа́льный (oficiálʹnyj).
Do not use in the following situations:
  • For indicating gemination or lack thereof;
  • For indicating the pronunciation of final -е;
  • For г pronounced [ɣ];
  • For зж or жж pronounced palatalized (i.e. as [ʑː]), as in въезжа́ть (vʺjezžátʹ) or дро́жжи (dróžži);
  • For indicating the pronunciation of сч, either as [ɕː] or [ɕt͡ɕ].
Accent marks other than primary (acute) and secondary (grave) are suppressed in the output.
Suppress the default transformation of adjectival -го to -во, сегодня to севодня and сегодняшн– to севодняшн-. (Note, there are exceptions for много, немного, лого, лего, сого, ого.)
Suppress the default transformation of что to што (and likewise for ничто, чтобы, чтоб).
If y, force gemination to be preserved in places it otherwise wouldn't. If n, force degemination in places it otherwise would be preserved. If opt, force optional gemination, including in places it wouldn't normally be preserved. Can also include multiple values separated by slashes, one per word. See below.
Part of speech code for controlling phonological outcomes that depend on the grammatical role of the word or words in question. Can also include multiple values separated by slashes, one per word. Currently used only for final unstressed -е and for words in final -ться or -дься. See below.
Render the result "raw", e.g. [ɐ] instead of IPA(key): [ɐ].
If non-empty, display a boldfaced annotation before the pronunciation. This is intended to display the spelling of the term when there are multiple pronunciations given in the pronunciation section, based off of differently-accented forms. If equal to y, display the result in |phon= (if specified) or |1= (although the value in |phon= is rarely what you want); accent marks other than primary (acute) and secondary (grave) are suppressed in the output. If any other non-empty value, display that value. Example: {{ru-IPA|спа́ля̣т|ann=y}} displays спа́лят: IPA(key): [ˈspalʲət].
Control whether brackets appear around the generated IPA. Default is yes. Use |bracket=n to suppress the bracket.
If y, and force generation of both [ʐː] and [ʑː] variants of words with зж or жж in them, even across prefix boundaries. If n, generate only the [ʐː] variant in all cases.

Part of speech codes


The value of the |pos= parameter can be either a single part of speech code or a series of such codes separated by slashes. In the former case, the same part of speech applies to all words in a multi-word phrase. In the latter case, there should be as many codes as there are words (otherwise, an error will result, tell you the expected number of words). Rules for counting number of words:

  • Both spaces and hyphens separate words. Hence ка-гэ-бэ is three words.
  • A comma, en dash (–) or em dash (—) counts as a word.
  • Two or more words joined by the ‿ sign count as a single word.

As mentioned above, part of speech codes are currently only used in two circumstances:

  • For determining the correct pronunciation of unstressed final -е (which may be pronounced [ə], [e], [ɪ] or [ɨ], depending on part of speech and the preceding letters).
  • For determining the correct pronunciation of final -ться (which is pronounced unpalatalized in infinitives but palatalized in imperatives).

The possible part of speech codes for final -е are:

  • omitted or def = Default ([ə] in the ending -ое, else same as mid)
  • n or noun = Neuter noun in the nominative/accusative (but not ending in adjectival -ое or -ее; those should be considered as adjectives)
  • pre = prepositional case singular
  • dat = dative case singular (treated same as prepositional)
  • voc = vocative case (currently treated as mid)
  • nnp = noun nominative plural in -е (гра́ждане, боя́ре, армя́не); not adjectival plurals in -ие or -ые, including adjectival nouns (да́нные, а́вторские)
  • inv = invariable noun or other word (currently treated as mid)
  • a or adj = adjective or adjectival noun (typically either neuter in -ое or -ее, or plural in -ие, -ые, or -ье, or short neuter in unpaired sibilant + -е)
  • c or com = comparative (typically either in -ее or sibilant + -е)
  • adv = adverb
  • p = preposition (treated same as adverb)
  • v, vb, verb = verbal ending (usually 2nd-plural in -те); not participle forms, which should be treated as adjectives
  • pro = pronoun (кое-, какие-, ваше, сколькие)
  • num = number (двое, трое, обе, четыре; currently treated as mid)
  • pref = prefix (treated as high because integral part of word)
  • hi or high = force high values ([ɪ] or [ɨ])
  • mid = force mid values ([e] or [ɨ])
  • lo, low, schwa = force low/schwa value ([ə])

The possible part of speech codes for final -ться are:

  • (none) = infinitive, pronounced as [t͡sːə] or [t͡sə]
  • imp = imperative, pronounced as [tʲ͡sʲsʲə]

Special symbols

  • Indicate primary stress with an acute accent, e.g. е́ or ы́.
  • Indicate secondary stress with a grave accent, e.g. ѐ or ы̀.
  • Indicate "tertiary" stress with a circumflex or double grave accent, e.g. е̂ or ы̂ or е̏ or ы̏ (i.e. where a vowel is to be treated as stressed but should not be marked as possessing either primary or secondary stress).
  • Force the reduced pronunciation of a vowel that would otherwise be stressed (e.g. in a single-syllable word) with a dot above, e.g. е̇ or ы̇.
  • Force a semi-reduced pronunciation ([ə] or [ɐ], instead of [ɪ]) of я or palatal а with a dot below, i.e. я̣ or а̣. This should be used in noun and verb endings, i.e. third-plural -ят, dative plural -ям, instrumental plural -ями, prepositional plural -ях.

Special consonants

  • Use h or ɣ to indicate [ɣ] (the voiced fricative pronunciation of the letter г).
  • Use ӂ to indicate [ʑ] (the soft pronunciation of ж, as in words like съе́зжая (sʺjézžaja), вожжа́ (vožžá) or дро́жжи (dróžži)).
  • Use щч or ɕч to force the pronunciation [ɕt͡ɕ]. By default, some instances of сч are pronounced [ɕt͡ɕ] and some are pronounced [ɕː]; see below.

Special punctuation

  • Use / to force a syllable boundary before a consonant. This also forces the "long" pronunciation [t͡ss] of тс, and similarly [d͡zz] for дз, and is useful particularly when another consonant follows, because otherwise the "short" pronunciations [t͡s] and [d͡z] would be used. An example is ветслу́жба; if written вѐтслу́жба, the result is [ˌvʲet͡sˈɫuʐbə], but if written вѐт/слу́жба, the result is [ˌvʲet͡sˈsɫuʐbə]. See below for the exact rules of when short and long pronunciations of тс and дз are used.
  • Use _ between consonants to prevent all assimilations between consonants, including voicing assimilation, palatalization assimilation, consonant reductions (e.g. лнц to нц, стл to сл), etc.
  • Use (ь) after a consonant to indicate optional palatalization of the consonant.
  • Use ‿ to force close juncture between words (treat the combination as a single word). Examples: {{ru-IPA|не́‿за‿што}} becomes [ˈnʲe‿zə‿ʂtə] and {{ru-IPA|гра̂д‿идёт}} becomes [ɡrad‿ɨˈdʲɵt].
  • Comma and em/en dashes (– and —) are converted to foot boundaries ( | ).

Phonological rules


The following sections detail some of the phonological rules used when generating pronunciation.

Geminated consonants (including cases like зж that become geminated after assimilation) may or may not be rendered with gemination. Use |gem= to override the defaults, e.g.:

  1. {{ru-IPA|да́нный|gem=y}} becomes [ˈdanːɨj]
  2. {{ru-IPA|да́нный|gem=n}} becomes [ˈdanɨj]
  3. {{ru-IPA|да́нный|gem=opt}} becomes [ˈdan(ː)ɨj]

As an exception, щ is always rendered [ɕː], and ӂӂ is always rendered [ʑː], regardless of |gem=. The same thing applies to combinations that are pronounced as щ (e.g. some сч, see above), regardless of |gem=.

Optional gemination can also be forced by writing C(C), e.g. {{ru-IPA|да́н(н)ый}} becomes [ˈdan(ː)ɨj].

By default, gemination is normally preserved:

  • When occurring directly after the stress and between vowels, except for лл.
  • In the combinations йя, йе, йи, йьо, йю when occurring directly after the stress and between vowels; these are treated as containing /jj/.
  • When occurring at the beginning of a word in вв-, сс-, жж-, зз-, шш- and combinations pronounced the same (e.g. сз-).
  • Whenever the pronunciation [ɕː] (e.g. from щ and initial сч-) and [ʑː] (from ӂӂ) occurs. As mentioned above, this cannot be overridden by |gem=.
  • In the combinations жж, зж, сж, шж when occurring between vowels or word initially.
  • In the combination нн when occurring between vowels before the stress.
  • In the combination сск when occurring directly after the stress.
  • At boundaries between certain prefixes and roots (e.g. рас-, раз-, ис-, из-, под-, от-, в-, с-, нис-, низ-, контр-; also the same when additionally prefixed by не-).

By default, gemination is normally rendered as optional:

  • In the combination нн when occurring between vowels after but not directly after the stress: {{ru-IPA|жа́ренный}} becomes [ˈʐarʲɪn(ː)ɨj].

By default, gemination is normally not preserved in all other circumstances. Note that this includes most occurrences of gemination not between vowels, e.g. {{ru-IPA|финн}} becomes [fʲin].

For multiword expressions, the value of |gem= can include multiple codes, separated by slashes. For example, {{ru-IPA|phon=по̀сттравмати́ческое стрэ́ссовое расстро́йство|gem=y/n/|pos=a}} produces [ˌpostːrəvmɐˈtʲit͡ɕɪskəjə ˈstrɛsəvəjə rɐsːˈtrojstvə]. There must either be only one code and no slashes (in which case that code applies to all words), or as many codes as there are words. If the default behavior is desired for a particular word, use a blank code, as in the example just given.

Pronunciation of сч


сч is sometimes rendered as [ɕt͡ɕ] and sometimes as [ɕː], according to the following rules:

  1. [зж]ч and [сзшж]щ are pronounced [ɕː], like щ.
  2. сч at the beginning of a word and in the sequences счёт and счит is pronounced [ɕː]: hence сча́стье [ˈɕːæsʲtʲje], просчёт [prɐˈɕːɵt], подсчёт [pɐt͡ɕˈɕːɵt], пересчи́тывать [pʲɪrʲɪˈɕːitɨvətʲ].
  3. Other сч are pronounced [ɕt͡ɕ].

As mentioned above, this can be overridden using щч to force the pronunciation [ɕt͡ɕ], and щ to force the pronunciation [ɕː]. Hence счи́тывать must be written щчи́тывать [ˈɕt͡ɕitɨvətʲ], and несча́стье must be written неща́стье [nʲɪˈɕːæsʲtʲje].

Pronunciation of тс, дз, тш, дж


тс and дз are sometimes rendered with the "short" pronunciations [t͡s] and [d͡z], and sometimes with the "long" pronunciations [t͡ss] and [d͡zz]. тш and дж always use "long" variants. Specifically:

  1. [дт] с and [дт] з across a word boundary use the long pronunciation, as do [дт]/с and [дт]/з with explicitly written slash.
  2. [дт]с + vowel and [дт]з + vowel use the long pronunciation.
  3. [дт]ьс and [дт]ьз use the long pronunciation, with palatalized [tʲ͡sʲ] and [dʲ͡zʲ].
  4. Word-initial отс-, подс- use the long pronunciation, because there is a morpheme boundary involved.
  5. Other [дт]с and [дт]з use the short pronunciation.
  6. [дт]ш and [дт]ж, including with an intervening ь, always use the long pronunciations [t͡ʂʂ] and [d͡ʐʐ] (possibly with the first part palatalized).

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